National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism
Division of Epidemiology and Prevention Research
Alcohol Epidemiologic Data System
SURVEILLANCE REPORT #102
APPARENT PER CAPITA ALCOHOL CONSUMPTION: NATIONAL, STATE, AND REGIONAL TRENDS, 1977–2013
Sarah P. Haughwout, B.S.
Robin A. LaVallee, M.P.P.
I-Jen P. Castle, Ph.D.
4250 N. Fairfax Drive
Arlington, VA 22203
U.S. Department of Health and Human Services
Public Health Service
National Institutes of Health
1 CSR, Incorporated operates the Alcohol
Epidemiologic Data System (AEDS) under Contract No. HHSN275201300016C for the
National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA). Dr. Rosalind A. Breslow
(Division of Epidemiology and Prevention Research) serves as the NIAAA Contracting
Officer's Representative on the contract.
This surveillance report on 1977–2013 apparent per capita alcohol consumption in the United States is the 29th in a series of consumption reports produced annually by the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA). Findings are based on alcoholic beverage sales data, collected from the States or the National Alcohol Beverage Control Association by the Alcohol Epidemiologic Data System (AEDS), and various reports produced by beverage industry sources. Population data from the U.S. Census Bureau are used as denominators to calculate per capita rates. The following are highlights from the current report, which updates consumption trends through 2013:
Per capita consumption of ethanol from all alcoholic beverages combined in 2013 was 2.34 gallons, representing no apparent change from 2012.
Between 2012 and 2013, changes in overall per capita consumption of ethanol included increases in 16 States, decreases in 26 States, and no changes in 8 States and the District of Columbia.
Analysis of overall per capita alcohol consumption by census region between 2012 and 2013 indicated an increase of 1.7% in the Northeast, and a decrease of 0.9% in the South, 0.8% in the West, and 0.4% in the Midwest.
Healthy People 2020 set the national objective for per capita alcohol consumption at no more than 2.1 gallons. Per capita consumption would need to decrease by 1.5% each year for the next 7 years to achieve this goal. In 2013, overall per capita consumption level was more than 10% above target (>2.31) in 30 States and the District of Columbia, 10% or less above target (>2.10–2.31) in 7 States, 10% below target to target (1.89–2.10) in 8 States, and more than 10% below target (<1.89) in 5 States.
This surveillance report on apparent per capita alcohol consumption in the United States is the 29th in a series of reports that examine alcohol consumption trends on a national, State, and regional basis. Like previous reports on per capita alcohol consumption, it is intended to provide updated alcohol information for policymakers, health care providers, researchers, and others concerned about alcohol issues.
Data presented in this report are related to one of the national objectives set in Healthy People 2020 for alcohol consumption. Healthy People, a program initiated by the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, establishes benchmarks to promote longer and higher-quality lives for Americans. Their objective for alcohol consumption is to reduce the national per capita alcohol consumption level by 10% from the 2007 baseline value of 2.3 gallons to no more than 2.1 gallons of ethanol by 2020 (U.S. Department of Health and Human Services 2012). According to NIAAA (2010), a “standard drink” in the United States contains 0.6 fluid ounces of ethanol. Thus, the target per capita consumption level of 2.1 gallons of ethanol equates to approximately an average of 448 standard drinks consumed by a person aged 14 years or older in a year.
The current report updates the 1977–2012 alcohol consumption trends (LaVallee, Kim, and Yi 2014) with new data for 2013. Data are presented in four tables. Table 1 presents national data on trends in beer, wine, and spirits consumption as well as on all alcoholic beverages combined. Table 2 presents data on alcohol consumption for individual States for 2013. States also are ranked in deciles according to per capita ethanol consumption. Table 3 presents the alcoholic beverage sales and shipment data sources for the volume data presented in Table 2. Table 4 presents data on consumption trends for each type of beverage and all beverages combined for the States as well as for the four regions defined by the U.S. Census Bureau: Northeast, Midwest, South, and West.
Alcohol Consumption Data
AEDS makes every effort to obtain alcoholic beverage sales data from all States and the District of Columbia because sales data more accurately reflect actual consumption of alcoholic beverages than do production and shipments data from beverage industry sources. States provide sales data in the form of volume or tax revenue, which AEDS converts to gallons by using State tax rates. For 2013, AEDS received beverage sales and/or tax receipts reports from 41 States. Spirits and wine sales data for control States were also received from the National Alcohol Beverage Control Association. When State data were unavailable or unusable, shipment data from beverage industry sources (Beverage Information Group 2014a, b, c) were used as a supplementary data source (Table 3). National and regional consumption data were estimated based on the sum of corresponding State-level volumes in gallons. The mixed use of data from sales and shipments sources appears to have little effect on overall trends in per capita alcohol consumption (Campbell, Clem, and Williams 1994). Some of the consumption estimates reported in the current report may differ slightly from those published in the previous year due to updates and revisions based on data received after publication.
State population estimates for people ages 14 and older were obtained from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention WONDER online query system, which provides bridged-race population estimates produced by the U.S. Census Bureau in collaboration with the National Center for Health Statistics (U.S. Department of Health and Human Services 2015). These data are used as denominators to calculate the per capita consumption figures.
To make the trend data more precise, AEDS revises data published in previous reports when the Census Bureau makes revisions to its population estimates. This report updates the 2000–2012 population estimates using the revised 2000–2009 intercensal series and bridged-race estimates of the July 1 resident population from the Vintage 2013 postcensal series (U.S. Department of Health and Human Services 2015).
Conversion of Ethanol Content
AEDS uses an estimate of average ethanol content in the alcoholic beverages to convert the gallons of sold or shipped beer, wine, and spirits into gallons of ethanol (pure alcohol) before calculating per capita consumption estimates. The ethanol conversion coefficients (ECC, i.e., proportion of pure alcohol for each beverage type) are 0.045 for beer, 0.129 for wine, and 0.411 for spirits, for data years 1977–2013 (Doernberg and Stinson 1985). Following the ethanolconversions, gallons of ethanol for beer, wine, and spirits are summed to gallons of ethanol for all beverages.
AEDS has considered changes in the alcoholic beverage market that may affect the ECCs used in the current report. For instance, the introduction of “light” beer, “light” wines, and coolers (both wine and spirits) may have slightly lowered the average ethanol content in some alcoholic beverages. Kling (1991, 1989) suggests that there were decreases in the ethanol content of spirits during the 1980s. However, such decreases may be offset by the increase in sales of drinks with higher ethanol content, such as premium brand liquors, fortified wines, malt liquors, and locally produced beers and ales (microbrews). “Ice” beers and “dry” beers, for example, both have higher ethanol content than either premium or light beers (M. Shanken Communications, Inc. 1994). Therefore, changes in the average net ethanol content across all beverages have probably been minimal and not large enough to alter the trends in overall per capita consumption.
Studies by Kerr and colleagues (2006a, b) estimated national average and State-specific ECCs for beer, wine, and spirits for each year from 1950–2002. Their method derived ECCs for each beverage type based on three components of data: (1) market shares for subcategories within the beverage type (e.g., table wine and wine coolers, within wine); (2) market shares for leading brands in each subcategory; and (3) ethanol contents of these leading brands. Their findings suggest that in 2002, the national average ethanol content was 0.0467 for beer, 0.1145 for wine, and 0.3690 for spirits. Their State-specific estimates indicate that ECCs for all beverage types varied by State and over time. AEDS compared per capita consumption estimates derived by Kerr and colleagues with data presented in this surveillance report. Results revealed that cross-State correlations between the two data sets are higher than 0.99 for all three beverage types. Similar patterns also were observed in national trends between the two sets of estimates, although some differences in absolute values existed and fluctuated over time. Given the fact that Kerr and colleagues applied their ECCs to the same AEDS beverage volume data to derive their per capita consumption estimates, it was concluded that consumption trends are mainly driven by beverage volumes rather than changes in the ECC estimates.
Because most of the analyses provided in this surveillance report are focused on consumption trends over time, and because of the time- and labor-intensive nature of estimating the ECC every year for each State, AEDS will continue to use the current fixed set of ECCs.
In this report, AEDS uses the population of people ages 14 and older to calculate per capita consumption rates. Although age 14 is below the minimum legal age for the purchase of alcoholic beverages throughout the United States, most self-report surveys indicate that many people aged 14 drink alcoholic beverages. For example, data from the NIAAA 2001–2002 National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions indicate that 12.2 percent of current drinkers ages 18 and older in the United States began drinking at age 15 or younger (AEDS 2004). Results from the Monitoring the Future survey in 2013 (Johnston et al. 2014) indicate that 22.1 percent of eighth graders (students ages 13 to 14) reported past-year use of alcohol (i.e., beyond a few sips). Also, using data from the National Survey on Drug Use and Health 2011–2013, Chen and colleagues (2015) found the median age of initiation of alcohol use among people ages 12 to 20 to be 14. Nonetheless, per capita consumption estimates for population ages 21 years and older are provided in the data file of this report (http://pubs.niaaa.nih.gov/publications/surveillance.htm).
Estimation of Per Capita Ethanol Consumption
Per capita ethanol consumption for each beverage type are calculated by multiplying national, State, or regional beverage volume by the corresponding ECC and dividing by the national, State, or regional population ages 14 and older. Per capita consumption of ethanol of all beverages is calculated directly from the estimated gallons of ethanol for all beverages divided by the population.
Percentage change calculations in this report are based on the numbers presented in the tables, which are rounded to two decimal places.
Readers familiar with survey reports and other scientific literature often are accustomed to the presentation of significance tests, or confidence intervals, on any data comparisons or trends. However, because data presented in this report are based on total actual sales and/or shipments, no measures of statistical significance are provided. Nonetheless, it is important to note that these data are still only estimates and may be subject to reporting error and random fluctuation over time.
In addition to ECCs, many factors may result in inaccuracies in estimates of per capita alcohol consumption. For instance, these estimates in some States may be inflated by such factors as cross-border sales to buyers from neighboring States (e.g., in New Hampshire) or tourists’ consumption of alcohol (e.g., in Washington, D.C.). Other factors include: variation in State reporting practices for sales of alcoholic beverages; time delay between State taxation records and actual consumption; exclusion of alcohol contained in medications and foods; unrecorded legal home production; and illicit production, importation, and sales (Rehm et al. 2014). These factors are discussed in detail in the AEDS data reference manual on per capita alcohol consumption (Nephew et al. 2004). Note that the word apparent in the title is pertinent because the estimates in this report are based on the reported volumes of alcoholic beverages released to the market for sale and not on actual measures of alcohol consumption of individuals.
Alcohol Epidemiologic Data System (AEDS). Unpublished data from the 2001–2002 National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, 2004.
Beverage Information Group. Beer Handbook, 2014. Norwalk, CT: Beverage Information Group, 2014a.
Beverage Information Group. Liquor Handbook, 2014. Norwalk, CT: Beverage Information Group, 2014b.
Beverage Information Group. Wine Handbook, 2014. Norwalk, CT: Beverage Information Group, 2014c.
Campbell, K.E.; Clem, D.; and Williams, G.D. Technical report: 1986–91 per capita ethanol consumption trends using beverage industry shipments data compared to combined sales/tax receipt and shipments data. Working paper prepared by the Alcohol Epidemiologic Data System, NIAAA, Washington, DC, August 1994.
Chen, C.M.; Yi, H.; and Faden, V.B. Surveillance Report #101: Trends in Underage Drinking in the United States, 1991–2013. Rockville, MD: NIAAA, Division of Epidemiology and Prevention Research, Alcohol Epidemiologic Data System, March 2015.
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Johnston, L.D.; O’Malley, P.M.; Bachman, J.G.; and Schulenberg, J.E. Monitoring the Future, National Results on Adolescent Drug Use: Overview of Key Findings, 2013. Ann Arbor, MI: Institute for Social Research, University of Michigan, 2014.
Kerr, W.C.; Greenfield, T.K.; Tujague, J.; Brown, S.E. The alcohol content of wine consumed in the US and per capita consumption: New estimates reveal different trends. Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research 30(3): 516–522, 2006a.
Kerr, W.C.; Greenfield, T.K; and Tujaque, J. Estimates of the mean alcohol concentration of the spirits, wine, and beer sold in the United States and per capita consumption: 1950 to 2002. Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research 30(9): 1583–1591, 2006b.
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LaVallee, R.A.; Kim, T.; and Yi, H. Surveillance Report #98: Apparent Per Capita Alcohol Consumption: National, State, and Regional Trends, 1977–2012. Rockville, MD: NIAAA, Division of Epidemiology and Prevention Research, Alcohol Epidemiologic Data System, April 2014.
M. Shanken Communications, Inc. The U.S. Beer Market: Impact Databank Review and Forecast, 1994 Edition. New York: Shanken, 1994.
National Institutes on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism. Rethinking Drinking: Alcohol and Your Health. NIH Pub. No. 13-3770. Rockville, MD: NIH, 2010.
Nephew, T.M.; Yi, H.; Williams, G.D.; Stinson, F.S.; and Dufour, M.C. Apparent Consumption of Alcoholic Beverages Based on State Sales, Taxation, or Receipt Data. (U.S. Alcohol Epidemiologic Data Reference Manual, Vol. 1, 4th ed.). NIH Publication No. 04-5563. Bethesda, MD: NIH, June 2004.
Rehm, J.; Kailasapillai, S.; Larsen, E.; Rehm. M.X.; Samokhvalov, A.V.; Shield, K.D.; Roerecke, M.; and Lachenmeier, D.W. A systematic review of the epidemiology of unrecorded alcohol consumption and the chemical composition of unrecorded alcohol. Addiction 109: 880–893, 2014.
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U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control
and Prevention (CDC), National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS). Bridged-Race
Population Estimates, United States July 1st resident population by state, county,
age, sex, bridged-race, and Hispanic origin. Compiled from 1990–1999 bridged-race
intercensal population estimates (released by NCHS on 7/26/2004); revised
bridged-race 2000–2009 intercensal population estimates (released by NCHS on
10/26/2012); and bridged-race Vintage 2013 (2010–2013) postcensal population estimates
(released by NCHS on 6/26/2014). Available on CDC WONDER Online Database. Accessed at
http://wonder.cdc.gov/bridged-race-v2013.html on Feb 3, 2015.
List of Figures
Figure 1. Total per capita ethanol consumption, United States, 1935–2013.
Figure 2. Per capita ethanol consumption by beverage type, United States, 1977–2013.
Figure 3. Percentage change in per capita ethanol consumption, United States, 1977–2013.
Figure 4. Total per capita consumption of gallons of ethanol by State, United States, 2013.
Figure 5. Percentage change in total per capita ethanol consumption by State, United States, 2012–2013.
Figure 6. Total per capita ethanol consumption by region, United States, 1977–2013.
Figure 7. Per capita ethanol consumption from beer by region, United States, 1977–2013.
Figure 8. Per capita ethanol consumption from wine by region, United States, 1977–2013.
Figure 9. Per capita ethanol consumption from spirits by region, United States, 1977–2013.
Table 1. Apparent per capita ethanol consumption, United States, 1850–2013.
Table 2. Apparent alcohol consumption for States, census regions, and the United States, 2013.
Table 3. Sources of alcoholic beverage sales and shipment data by State and beverage type, 2013.
Table 4. Per capita ethanol consumption for States, census regions, and the United States, 1977–2013.