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Home » Publications » Surveillance Reports » Surveillance Report #96

National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism
Division of Epidemiology and Prevention Research
Alcohol Epidemiologic Data System

SURVEILLANCE REPORT #96

TRENDS IN UNDERAGE DRINKING IN THE UNITED STATES, 1991–2011


Chiung M. Chen, M.A.1
Hsiao-ye Yi, Ph.D.1
Vivian B. Faden, Ph.D.2

1 CSR, Incorporated
2107 Wilson Boulevard, Suite 1000
Arlington, VA 22201

2 Office of Science Policy and Communications
National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism
5635 Fishers Lane, MSC 9304
Bethesda, MD 20892–9304

January 2013


U.S. Department of Health and Human Services
Public Health Service
National Institutes of Health

CSR, Incorporated operates the Alcohol Epidemiologic Data System (AEDS) under Contract No. HHSN267200800023 for the Division of Epidemiology and Prevention Research, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA). Dr. Rosalind A. Breslow serves as NIAAA Project Officer on the contract.

HIGHLIGHTS

This surveillance report, prepared by the Alcohol Epidemiologic Data System (AEDS), National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA), presents data on underage drinking among youth ages 12–20 for 1991–2011. This is the fifth of a series of reports to be published every two years on underage drinking and related attitudes and risk behaviors. Data for this series are compiled from three separate nationally representative surveys: the National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH), the Monitoring the Future (MTF) survey, and the Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS). The following are highlights of trends from 1991 through 2011.

Prevalence of use

  • Although there are marked differences in absolute values of estimates, and estimates show different patterns of increase and decrease over the time period evaluated, the trends across all three survey data sources show an overall decline in the prevalence of alcohol consumption in the past 30 days between 1991 and 2011. In 2011, 24.8 percent of youth ages 12–20 reported consuming alcohol in the past 30 days (NSDUH).

  • Throughout this period, rates of underage drinking remained highest among non-Hispanic whites, followed by Hispanics and non-Hispanic blacks. Rates were also higher among youth not enrolled in school as compared with those enrolled in school (NSDUH), although rates among college students remained higher than among non-college students (data not shown).

Drinking patterns

  • The median age of initiation of drinking alcohol has increased slightly from 13.65 years in 1991–1993 to 14.35 years in 2009–2011 (NSDUH). In addition, there has been a gradual decline in the proportion of youth reporting initiating drinking at age 12 years or younger (NSDUH, YRBS).

  • Over the course of the study period, males have maintained higher average frequency, quantity, and volume of consumption in the past 30 days than females, although gender differences are small or nonexistent at the youngest ages. In 2009–2011, youth drinkers ages 12–20 reported drinking on a mean of 5.47 days in the past 30 days. They consumed an average of 4.68 drinks on the days that they drank, amounting to an average total of 32.1 drinks in the past 30 days (NSDUH).

  • According to NSDUH, overall rates of binge drinking among 12- to 20-year-olds show an increasing trend between 1993 and 2001, from 12.1 to 18.6 percent, but have trended down in the last few years. Data from the secondary school-based surveys (MTF and YRBS), by contrast, show an overall decline in binge drinking rates during the study period; the recent downward trends appear to have started in 1999 (MTF) and possibly as early as 1997 (YRBS).

Alcohol-related attitudes

  • The percentages of youth who strongly disapprove others regularly consuming alcohol or binge drinking and who consider regular or binge drinking a great risk (MTF) show a declining trend during the 1990s, particularly in the early 1990s. The trend was reversed in the 2000s, showing a gradual increase for the past ten years or so.

Alcohol-related risk behaviors

  • Between 1991 and 2011 trends from the YRBS show an overall decline in the prevalence of secondary school youth driving while under the influence of alcohol, and similar downward trends are observed in the NSDUH data for the prevalence since 2003. Although the NSDUH data show an increase in the prevalence between 1995 and 2002, the difference is due to the large increase in rates among 18- to 20-year-olds—from 15.6 percent in 1995 to 22.2 percent in 2002, as the rates among younger youth remained relatively stable (NSDUH).


INTRODUCTION

This surveillance report on underage drinking is one of a series of reports published to monitor trends in alcohol consumption and alcohol-related morbidity and mortality. These reports are prepared by the Alcohol Epidemiologic Data System (AEDS), Division of Epidemiology and Prevention Research, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA), and are intended to be useful to researchers, planners, policymakers, and other professionals interested in alcohol abuse and its associated consequences. The Surgeon General’s 2007 Call to Action To Prevent and Reduce Underage Drinking has brought renewed focus to this issue. The Call to Action reviews the risk factors and outcomes associated with underage drinking, presents a developmental framework for understanding and addressing underage drinking, and identifies six goals for the Nation to address the problem of underage drinking. This surveillance report responds to Goal 5, “Work to improve public health surveillance on underage drinking and on population-based risk factors for this behavior” (U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 2007, p.37). The data also are essential in assessing changes toward meeting the Nation’s health promotion and disease prevention goals to reduce underage drinking as stated in Healthy People 2020 (U.S. Department of Health and Human Services 2010). This is the fifth surveillance report on underage drinking developed by NIAAA. AEDS will issue follow-up reports on this topic every two years.

Rates of alcohol consumption among underage youth are a cause for concern (National Research Council 2003 and Institute of Medicine). In 2011, 24.8 percent of 12- to 20-year-olds reported drinking alcohol in the past 30 days (National Survey of Drug Use and Health [NSDUH] 2011). This is a decrease from the rate of 33.4 percent almost two decades earlier in 1991 (National Household Survey on Drug Abuse [NHSDA] 1991), although changes in survey methodology preclude a direct comparison of these two estimates. Alcohol consumption begins early, at a median age of 14.35 years (NSDUH 2009–2011) and 20.5 percent of high school students reporting that they consumed their first drink of alcohol before age 13 (Eaton et al. 2012). By the 12th grade, 21.6 percent of adolescents report binge drinking (consuming five or more drinks in a row within the past two weeks) (Monitoring the Future [MTF] 2011).

Underage drinking is associated with a wide array of social, emotional, behavioral, and health problems (Komro and Toomey 2002). O’Malley and colleagues (1998) found that among 12th graders surveyed between 1994 and 1997, 18 percent (or close to a third of the 53 percent who had consumed alcohol on at least 10 occasions) had experienced three or more alcohol-related problems. For example, alcohol caused them to behave in ways they later regretted, it interfered with their ability to think clearly, or it caused them to drive unsafely. Youth who drink and drive are at increased risk of involvement in accidents, because of the duality of alcohol-related impairment and relative driving inexperience (Office of Applied Studies [OAS] 2003). Underage drinking is associated with driving after consuming alcohol or riding with a peer who has consumed alcohol (Miller et al. 2007; Windle 2003). When youth consume alcohol, they are more likely to engage in risky sexual behaviors such as unprotected sexual intercourse, having multiple partners, and being drunk or high during intercourse (Hingson et al. 1990; Miller et al. 2007; Ramisetty-Mikler et al. 2004; Strunin and Hingson 1992; Stueve and O’Donnell 2005), putting them at risk of such adverse consequences as sexual victimization (Champion et al. 2004), unwanted pregnancy (Slevin and Marvin 1987), and sexually transmitted infections (Shafer et al. 1993). Adolescents under the influence of alcohol or with a history of drinking alcohol are also more likely to engage in violence, such as physical fighting and assault (Blitstein et al. 2005; Kodjo et al. 2004; Swahn et al. 2004; Wells et al. 2004). Alcohol use disorders are associated with neurocognitive disadvantages in adolescents (Brown and Tapert 2004; Monti et al. 2005). Adolescent alcohol use disorder also increases the risk for both suicide attempts and completion (Chatterji et al. 2004; Esposito-Smythers and Spirito 2004). Several studies have established a convincing link between youth alcohol use, particularly binge drinking, and illicit drug use (Greenblatt 2000; Miller et al. 2007; OAS 2002; O’Malley et al. 1998). Adolescent binge drinkers, for example, are seven times more likely to report past-year illicit drug use than adolescent non-binge drinkers (OAS 2002). Finally, binge drinking during adolescence has recently been reported to cause life-long pathological changes in the brains of rodents (Coleman et al. 2011).

Age at initiation of drinking1 affects future drinking patterns and alcohol-related risk behaviors (Faden 2006; Grant and Dawson 1997; Grant et al. 2001; Hingson et al. 2002; Hingson et al. 2006; Stueve and O’Donnell, 2005; Warner and White 2003; Wells et al. 2004; Young et al. 2006). For example, early age at drinking initiation is associated with binge drinking, getting drunk and high, subjective reports of substance use interfering with life activities (Stueve and O’Donnell 2005), and alcohol abuse and dependence later in life (Grant and Dawson 1997; Grant et al. 2001; York et al. 2004). Hingson and colleagues (2002) found that age at initiation of drinking was associated with driving after drinking and being involved in drinking-related vehicle crashes. Zakrajsek and Shope (2006) found that age at drinking initiation was associated with risky driving and alcohol-related driving offenses. In a recent study, Hingson and Zha (2009) found that early age of drinking onset was prospectively associated with unintentionally injuring oneself and others when under the influence of alcohol.

(1Drinking initiation refers to the first consumption of a full drink.)


DATA SOURCES

Data for this report are drawn from three sources: the NSDUH, the MTF survey, and the Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS).

National Survey on Drug Use and Health

The NSDUH (formerly the NHSDA) is conducted by the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA). The nationally representative survey was initiated in 1971 and administered annually from 1991. The survey is administered at the household level through in-person interviews. Since 1999, computer-assisted interviewing methods have been used, including audio computer-assisted self-interviewing for selected survey components. In this same year, the survey sample was expanded to allow for computation of State-specific prevalence estimates. In 2002, the survey was given its new name (NSDUH) and additional methodological changes were made that affected some prevalence rates and represented a new baseline. These changes included a $30 incentive to all respondents, which resulted in substantial increases in response rates; improved data quality-control measures; and use of new population data from the 2000 decennial census to compute sample weights. All respondents ages 12–20 years were selected for inclusion in the underage drinking surveillance report.

Monitoring the Future

The MTF survey is funded by the National Institute on Drug Abuse and conducted annually by the University of Michigan Institute for Social Research. The MTF was initiated in 1975 among 12th graders only, and 8th and 10th graders were added in 1991, providing a nationally representative sample of secondary school students in those grades. The survey is administered in school to a sample of students enrolled in public and private secondary schools. Since 1976, a random sample of 12th graders has been followed biannually through a self-administered mail-back questionnaire. For this surveillance report, all respondents from the 8th, 10th, and 12th grade samples were included in the analyses.

Youth Risk Behavior Survey

The YRBS is conducted by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and administered every two years to students enrolled in public or private schools in grades 9 through 12. Initiated in 1991, the survey provides a nationally representative sample of youth enrolled in high school. All respondents from the biannual surveys were included in this surveillance report.

All three sources of data for this surveillance report are nationally representative repeated cross-sectional surveys that provide data on youth alcohol consumption and related risk behaviors. As described above, there are also important differences among the three surveys, related to the ages of youth sampled, the timing of the survey, the setting of survey administration and consequent type of youth sampled and level of anonymity involved, and wording of the questions. Specifications of the three surveys are summarized in the Appendix and briefly reviewed here.

Age-Groups

Whereas the NSDUH collects information on youth as young as 12 years old, the YRBS collects information from youth in grades 9 through 12 and the MTF skips grades, surveying youth in 8th, 10th, and 12th grades.

Periodicity

Both the NSDUH and the MTF are administered on an annual basis, whereas the YRBS collects data every two years.

Survey administration location

As school-based surveys, the MTF and YRBS collect data only on youth currently enrolled in school. Data from the NSDUH cover both youth enrolled in school and those not enrolled. Given the setting of the survey administration, there are different levels of anonymity. For example, youth are more likely to feel comfortable about revealing sensitive information, such as alcohol and other drug use, in the more anonymous school setting than in the home setting (Faden et al. 2004; Fendrich and Johnson 2001; Fowler and Stringfellow 2001; Sudman 2001). On the other hand, youth may also be responding to perceived peer influence in the school setting and may exaggerate their reported risk behaviors, although such effects are hard to assess (Fowler and Stringfellow 2001; Harrison 2001). Thus, whereas alcohol consumption rates may be under-reported in the NSDUH, they may be inflated in the MTF and YRBS datasets.

Wording of the Questions

The three surveys differ in the number and wording of questions on alcohol consumption and on related risk behaviors. The reference period for all surveys is generally the past 30 days. However, for binge drinking the MTF asks about drinking in the past two weeks, whereas the other surveys ask about drinking in the past month. The NSDUH and the YRBS ask about age at initiation of drinking but the MTF survey asks about grade at initiation of drinking. All surveys ask about driving under the influence, but the MTF frames the question around whether the respondent has ever gotten a moving violation ticket or warning after drinking alcohol. The Appendix specifies the wording used in each survey for the indicators included in the report. Data tables and figures are not provided for all questions listed.


METHODS

This surveillance report tracks alcohol consumption and associated behaviors among youth ages 12–20 years old. Age 12 is the youngest age for which nationally representative data are available (from NSDUH). Age 20 is the last year before youth are legally allowed to drink alcohol. Findings are presented for 1991–2011, the latest year for which data are available for this report from all three data sources. For new indicators collected only in the past several years, all available data are reported (i.e., detailed data by race, data on selected alcohol-related risk behaviors).

Definitions

The report presents trend data on different categories of indicators for alcohol consumption and related risk behaviors, including prevalence of use, pattern of use, alcohol-related attitudes, and alcohol-related risk behaviors. Definitions of measures used are provided below, including descriptions of calculated measures:

  • Prevalence of use

    • Any drinking of alcohol in the past 30 days (more than just a sip or two from a drink)

  • Initiation of Drinking

    • Age at first use of alcohol

    • Initiating drinking at age 12 years or younger

  • Frequency of use

    • Number of drinking days in the past 30 days

  • Quantity of use

    • Usual number of drinks on drinking days in the past 30 days

  • Volume of use

    • Total number of drinks in the past 30 days, computed as frequency multiplied by average quantity in the past 30 days

  • Binge drinking

    • Any drinking of five or more drinks in a row in the past 30 days (for NSDUH and YRBS data) or in the past two weeks (for MTF data)

    • Frequency of drinking five or more drinks in a row in the past 30 days

    • Frequency of drinking five or more drinks in a row in the past 30 days, categorized as 0 days, 1–2 days, 3–4 days, and 5 or more days

  • Drunkenness

    • Frequency of being drunk or very high from drinking in the past 30 days

  • Alcohol-related attitudes

    • Disapproval of consuming one or two drinks nearly every day, categorized as don’t disapprove, disapprove, and strongly disapprove

    • Disapproval of consuming five or more drinks once or twice each weekend, categorized as don’t disapprove, disapprove, and strongly disapprove

    • Perception of risk of harm for those drinking one or two drinks nearly every day, categorized as no risk, slight risk, moderate risk, and great risk

    • Perception of risk of harm for those drinking five or more drinks once or twice each weekend, categorized as no risk, slight risk, moderate risk, and great risk

  • Alcohol-related risk behaviors

    • Driving after drinking alcohol in the past 30 days

    • Riding in a car driven by someone who had been drinking in the past 30 days

    • Drinking alcohol or using drugs before last sexual intercourse

    • Drinking on school property in the past 30 days

    • Drinking and activity with risk of physical danger in the past 12 months

    • Drinking and getting into legal trouble in the past 12 months

    • Problems with family or friends caused by drinking in the past 12 months

Analyses

Analyses in this report are mainly descriptive. The report examines a wide range of relevant data over multiple years and discusses observed changes without reference to more complicated statistical analyses of trends, such as those used by Faden and Fay (2004) and Faden (2006). The exceptions are Figures 1-1, 1-2, 6-1, and 6-2, where the trends in prevalence of drinking and binge drinking are represented by segmented lines that were fitted using joinpoint (piecewise) regression models (Kim et al. 2000). These lines indicate significant changes in the trends over time.

For different analyses, data are presented by sex, race (non-Hispanic white and non-Hispanic black) and Hispanic origin, age or current school grade, and school enrollment status. More detailed data by race and Hispanic origin (non-Hispanic white, non-Hispanic black, Native American/Alaska Native, Asian/Native Hawaiian Islander/Other Pacific Islander, Hispanic, more than one race) are presented in the tables for years 1999–2011. To increase the stability of estimates, prevalence estimates by age are presented in age groupings in the tables, specifically 12–14, 15–17, and 18–20 years. In the figures, these prevalence estimates are shown by single age and grade. Three-year moving averages are used for tracking certain alcohol consumption measures among current drinkers in order to minimize data suppression problems for groups with small sample sizes (e.g., number of drinkers in the 12–14 year age group) and to avoid large fluctuations in the mean estimates. For selected indicators, trend data from the three data sources are compared in separate graphs. Because of the large age span of the NSDUH and its inclusion of youth enrolled and not enrolled in school, more detailed analyses by demographic characteristics are presented for the NSDUH only. We present results from secondary data analysis for NSDUH and YRBS data, as publicly available reports on these surveys do not cover all the indicators, categories, and age groupings applicable to this report. Applicable estimates by grade are publicly available for MTF data, and these are presented in tables in this report to facilitate comparison across different surveys. We present secondary analysis results for MTF estimates across grade, as these aggregate estimates are not publicly available elsewhere. Some MTF indicators are available from only a subsample, as not all questions were included on all survey forms. We note in the MTF figures and tables when estimates are based on less than the full sample.

To ensure reliability of findings presented, all cases with outliers were censored. Specifically, cases with reported alcohol consumption of greater than 20 drinks per drinking day were truncated at 20 drinks on drinking days. Cases with missing values for an indicator of interest were excluded from analysis for that indicator. The stability of estimates (r) was assessed using the relative standard error (RSE), computed as RSE=100 x (SE(r)/r). Following the recommendations of the National Center for Health Statistics (Klein et al. 2002), estimates with RSE>17.5 percent were considered of low reliability and are marked in the tables with the symbol #.

Limitations

Due to differences in sample populations (i.e., only school-enrolled youth vs. both enrolled and not enrolled youth) and survey administration (i.e., in school vs. in home), comparisons among the three data sources need to be made with caution. Although it is not appropriate to compare prevalence estimates across surveys within a single year, it is possible to compare trends across years. For example, there are marked differences in absolute values of past-30-day alcohol consumption prevalence among findings from the NSDUH, the MTF, and the YRBS; however, trend lines from all three surveys show a decrease in prevalence between 1997 and 2011.

Furthermore, the NSDUH also had a major change of design during this period. Close examination of the NSDUH data for past-30-day consumption shows a steep decrease in rates between 1998 and 1999 followed by an increase from 1999 to 2003. It is not clear if this is a real increase or an artifact of the 1999 methodological changes. The 2002 methodological changes—including the respondent incentive and the improved data collection quality-control measures—also may have resulted in higher self-reported substance use by respondents (SAMHSA 2003). Caution needs to be taken in comparing estimates from before and after 1999, as well as from before and after 2002. The major change in survey methodology of 1999 and the additional changes of 2002 are marked with shading in the graphs included in this report. Prevalence estimates from the NSDUH included in this report may differ slightly from those presented in reports issued by SAMHSA, as SAMHSA analysts use a restricted-use dataset for their analyses.


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List of Figures

Figure 1-1. Prevalence of drinking in the past 30 days, by sex, 1991–2011

Figure 1-2. NSDUH: Prevalence of drinking in the past 30 days among 12–20 year olds, by sex and age group, 1991–2011

Figure 1-3. NSDUH: Prevalence of drinking in the past 30 days among 12–20 year olds, by sex and race/Hispanic origin, 1991–2011

Figure 1-4. NSDUH: Prevalence of drinking in the past 30 days among 12–20 year olds, by school enrollment status, 1991–2011

Figure 1-5. NSDUH: Prevalence of drinking in the past 30 days among 12–20 year olds, by age, sex, and race/Hispanic origin, 2011

Figure 1-6. YRBS: Prevalence of drinking in the past 30 days, by grade and sex, 2011

Figure 2-1. NSDUH and YRBS: Prevalence of initiating drinking at age 12 years or younger, by sex, 1991–2011

Figure 2-2. NSDUH: Median age at first use of alcohol among 12–20 year olds, by sex and race/Hispanic origin, 1991–2011 (based on 3-year moving averages)

Figure 2-3. NSDUH: Median age at first use of alcohol among 12–20 year olds, by school enrollment status, 1991–2011

Figure 3-1. NSDUH: Mean frequency of drinking in the past 30 days among current drinkers ages 12–20 years, by sex and race/Hispanic origin, 1991–2011 (based on 3-year moving averages)

Figure 3-2. NSDUH: Mean frequency of drinking in the past 30 days among current drinkers ages 12–20 years, by age, sex, and race/Hispanic origin, 2009–2011

Figure 4-1. NSDUH: Mean quantity on drinking days in the past 30 days among current drinkers ages 12–20 years, by sex and race/Hispanic origin, 1991–2011 (based on 3-year moving averages)

Figure 4-2. NSDUH: Mean quantity on drinking days in the past 30 days among current drinkers ages 12–20 years, by age, sex, and race/Hispanic origin, 2009–2011

Figure 5-1. NSDUH: Average total number of drinks in the past 30 days among current drinkers ages 12–20 years, by sex and race/Hispanic origin, 1991–2011 (based on 3-year moving averages)

Figure 5-2. NSDUH: Average total number of drinks in the past 30 days among current drinkers ages 12–20 years, by age, sex, and race/Hispanic origin, 2009–2011

Figure 6-1. Prevalence of binge drinking, by sex, 1991–2011

Figure 6-2. NSDUH: Prevalence of binge drinking in the past 30 days among 12–20 year olds, by sex and age group, 1991–2011

Figure 6-3. NSDUH: Prevalence of binge drinking in the past 30 days among 12–20 year olds, by age, sex, and race/Hispanic origin, 2011

Figure 6-4. YRBS: Prevalence of binge drinking in the past 30 days, by grade and sex, 2011

Figure 6-5. NSDUH: Mean number of binge drinking days in the past 30 days among current drinkers ages 12–20 years, by sex and race/Hispanic origin, 1991–2011 (based on 3-year moving averages)

Figure 6-6. NSDUH: Mean number of binge drinking days in the past 30 days among current drinkers ages 12–20 years, by school enrollment status, 1991–2011 (based on 3-year moving averages)

Figure 6-7. NSDUH: Frequency of binge drinking in the past 30 days among current drinkers ages 12–20 years, by category (0 days, 1–2 days, 3–4 days, 5+ days), sex, and race/Hispanic origin, 1991–2011

Figure 7. MTF: Prevalence of having been drunk or very high from drinking alcoholic beverages in the past 30 days among 8th, 10th, and 12th graders, by sex, 1991–2011

Figure 8-1a. MTF: Percent distribution of disapproval towards taking one or two drinks nearly every day among 8th, 10th, and 12th graders, by sex, 1991–2011

Figure 8-1b. MTF: Percent distribution of disapproval towards having five or more drinks once or twice each weekend among 8th, 10th, and 12th graders, by sex, 1991–2011

Figure 8-2a. MTF: Percent distribution of perceived risk of harm by having one or two drinks nearly every day among 8th, 10th, and 12th graders, by sex, 1991–2011

Figure 8-2b. MTF: Percent distribution of perceived risk of harm by having five or more drinks once or twice each weekend among 8th, 10th, and 12th graders, by sex, 1991–2011

Figure 8-2c. NSDUH: Percent distribution of perceived risk of harm by having five or more drinks once or twice a week among 12–20 year olds, by sex, 1991–2011

Figure 9-1a. NSDUH: Prevalence of driving a vehicle while under the influence of alcohol or in combination of illegal drugs in the past 12 months among 12–20 year olds, by sex and race/Hispanic origin, 1995–2011

Figure 9-1b. YRBS: Prevalence of driving after drinking alcohol in the past 30 days, by sex and race/Hispanic origin, 1991–2011

Figure 9-1c. YRBS: Prevalence of riding in a car driven by someone who had been drinking in the past 30 days, by sex and race/Hispanic origin, 1991–2011

Figure 9-2. YRBS: Prevalence of drinking alcohol or using drugs before last sexual intercourse, by sex, 1991–2011

Figure 9-3. YRBS: Prevalence of ever drinking on school property in the past 30 days, by sex, 1993–2011

Figure 9-4. NSDUH: Prevalence of drinking and activity with risk of physical danger in the past 12 months among 12–20 year olds, by sex, 2000–2011

Figure 9-5. NSDUH: Prevalence of drinking and getting into legal trouble in the past 12 months among 12–20 year olds, by sex, 2000–2011

Figure 9-6. NSDUH: Prevalence in the past 12 months of problems with family or friends caused by drinking among 12–20 year olds, by sex, 2000–2011


List of Tables

Table 1-1. NSDUH: Prevalence of drinking in the past 30 days, by age, sex, and race/Hispanic origin, among 12–20 year olds, United States, 1991–2011

Table 1-2. MTF: Prevalence of drinking in the past 30 days, by grade and sex, United States, 1991–2011

Table 1-3. YRBS: Prevalence of drinking in the past 30 days, by grade and sex, United States, 1991–2011

Table 2-1. NSDUH: Median age at first use of alcohol, by age, sex, and race/Hispanic origin, among ever drinkers ages 12–20, United States, 1991–2011 (based on 3-year moving averages)

Table 2-2. NSDUH: Prevalence of initiating drinking at age 12 years or younger, by sex, among ever drinkers ages 12–20, United States, 1991–2011

Table 2-3. YRBS: Prevalence of initiating drinking at age 12 years or younger, by sex, among ever drinkers, United States, 1991–2011

Table 3. NSDUH: Mean frequency of drinking in the past 30 days, by age, sex, and race/Hispanic origin, among current drinkers ages 12–20, United States, 1991–2011 (based on 3-year moving averages)

Table 4. NSDUH: Mean quantity of drinking on drinking days in the past 30 days, by age, sex, and race/Hispanic origin, among current drinkers ages 12–20, United States, 1991–2011 (based on 3-year moving averages)

Table 5. NSDUH: Average total number of drinks in the past 30 days, by age, sex, and race/Hispanic origin, among current drinkers ages 12–20, United States, 1991–2011 (based on 3-year moving averages)

Table 6-1. NSDUH: Prevalence of binge drinking in the past 30 days, by age, sex, and race/Hispanic origin, among 12–20 year olds, United States, 1991–2011

Table 6-2. MTF: Prevalence of binge drinking in the past 2 weeks, by grade and sex, United States, 1991–2011

Table 6-3. YRBS: Prevalence of binge drinking in the past 30 days, by grade and sex, United States, 1991–2011

Table 6-4. NSDUH: Mean number of binge drinking days in the past 30 days, by age, sex, and race/Hispanic origin, among current drinkers ages 12–20, United States, 1991–2011 (based on 3-year moving averages)

Table 7. MTF: Prevalence of having been drunk or very high from drinking alcoholic beverages in the past 30 days, by grade and sex, United States, 1991–2011

Table 8. NSDUH: Prevalence of driving a vehicle while under the influence of alcohol or in combination of illegal drugs in the past 12 months, by age, sex, and race/Hispanic origin, among 12–20 year olds, United States, 1995–2011


Appendix

Appendix A. Differences Among Survey Data Sources

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