Table 1. Summary of Results from Selected Comparative Studies of Drinking Rates
Australia
Austria
Belgium
Canada
Czech
Republic
Denmark
Estonia
Finland
France
Germany
Greece
Ireland
Israel
Italy
Luxemburg
Netherlands
Norway
Portugal
Russia
Spain
Sweden
Switzerland
UK
USA

Hupkens et al. 1993
(12 EU countries)

*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*

Abstinence

L

H

Frequency

L

HW

HM

Ahlström et al. 2001
(7 European countries)

*
*
*
*
*
*
*

Current drinking

HM

L

HW

L

Frequency per month

L

H

Mean consumption

L

H

Heavy drinking

L

HM

HW

Leifman et al. 2002
(6 EU countries)

*
*
*
*
*
*

Abstinence

L

H

Daily drinking

H

L

Average volume

L

H

Binge drinking

L

H

Wilsnack et al. 2000
(10 countries)

*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*

Lifetime abstinence

L

H

Current drinking

H

LW

LM

Frequency

HM

L

HW

Average volume

LM

H

LW

Heavy drinking

HM

L

HW

Simpura & Karlsson 2001
(15 countries)

*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*

Abstinence

L

HM

HW

Daily drinking

L

H

Mäkelä et al. 2001
(4 Scandinavian countries)

*
*
*
*

Abstinence

L

HW

HM

Mean consumption

H

L

Per occasion

HW

HM/
LW

LM

6+ frequency

H

LW

LM

NOTE: Countries participating in the respective studies are shaded (*); countries with the highest (H) or lowest (L) levels and for men (M) or women (W) of each variable studied are indicated.

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