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NOTAS

Notas

  1. Dawson DA, Grant BF, Li TK. Quantifying the risks associated with exceeding recommended drinking limits. Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 29(5):902-908, 2005.
  2. U.S. Surgeon General releases advisory on alcohol use in pregnancy [press release]. Washington, DC. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. February 21, 2005. Available at: www.hhs.gov/surgeongeneral/pressreleases/sg02222005.html. Accessed October 3, 2006.
  3. National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism. Unpublished data from the 2001-2002 National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC), a nationwide survey of 43,093 U.S. adults aged 18 or older. 2004.
  4. Rehm J, Room R, Graham K, Monteiro M, Gmel G, Sempos CT. The relationship of average volume of alcohol consumption and patterns of drinking to burden of disease: An overview. Addiction. 98(9):1209-1228, 2003.
  5. McGlynn EA, Asch SM, Adams J, et al. The quality of health care delivered to adults in the United States. N Engl J Med. 348(26):2635-2645, 2003.
  6. Miller PM, Thomas SE, Mallin R. Patient attitudes towards self-report and biomarker alcohol screening by primary care physicians. Alcohol Alcohol. 41(3):306-310, 2006.
  7. Williams EC, Kivlahan DR, Saitz R, et al. Readiness to change in primary care patients who screened positive for alcohol misuse. Ann Fam Med. 4(3):213-220, 2006.
  8. Fleming MF, Mundt MP, French MT, Manwell LB, Staauffacher EA, Barry KL. Brief physician advice for problem drinkers: Long-term efficacy and cost-benefit analysis. Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 26(1):36-43, 2002.
  9. Willenbring ML, Olson DH. A randomized trial of integrated outpatient treatment for medically ill alcoholic men. Arch Intern Med. 13;159(16):1946-1952, 1999.
  10. Lieber CS, Weiss DG, Groszmann R, Paronetto F, Schenker S, for the Veterans Affairs Cooperative Study 391 Group. II. Veterans Affairs cooperative study of polyenylphosphatidylcholine in alcoholic liver disease. Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 27(11):1765-1772, 2003.
  11. Kessler RC. The epidemiology of dual diagnosis. Biol Psychiatry. 56(10):730-737, 2004.
  12. Grant BF, Stinson FS, Dawson DA, et al. Prevalence and co-occurrence of substance use disorders and independent mood and anxiety disorders: Results from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 61:807-816, 2004.
  13. Reinert DF, Allen JP. The Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT): A review of recent research. Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 26(2):272-279, 2002.
  14. Bradley KA, Boyd-Wickizer J, Powell SH, Burman ML. Alcohol screening questionnaires in women: A critical review. JAMA. 280(2):166-171, 1998.
  15. Fiellin DA, Reid MC, O’Connor PG. Screening for alcohol problems in primary care: A systematic review. Arch Intern Med. 160(13):1977-1989, 2000.
  16. Chung T, Colby SM, Barnett NP, Rohsenow DJ, Spirito A, Monti PM. Screening adolescents for problem drinking: Performance of brief screens against DSM-IV alcohol diagnoses. J Stud Alcohol. 61(4):579-587, 2000.
  17. Kranzler HR, Armeli S, Tennen H, et al. Targeted naltrexone for early problem drinkers. J Clin Psychopharmacol. 23(3):294-304, 2003.
  18. Garbutt JC, Kranzler HR, O’Malley SS, et al. Efficacy and tolerability of long-acting injectable naltrexone for alcohol dependence: A randomized controlled trial. JAMA, 293(13):1617-1625, 2005.
  19. Bouza C, Angeles M, Munoz A, Amate JM. Efficacy and safety of naltrexone and acamprosate in the treatment of alcohol dependence: A systematic review. Addiction. 99(7):811-828, 2004.
  20. Srisurapanont M, Jarusuraisin N. Naltrexone for the treatment of alcoholism: A meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Int J Neuropsychopharmacol. 8(2):267-280, 2005.
  21. Mann K, Lehert P, Morgan MY. The efficacy of acamprosate in the maintenance of abstinence in alcohol-dependent individuals: Results of a metaanalysis. Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 28(1):51-63, 2004.
  22. Anton RF, O’Malley SS, Ciraulo DA, et al., for the COMBINE Study Research Group. Combined pharmacotherapies and behavioral interventions for alcohol dependence: The COMBINE study: A randomized controlled trial. JAMA. 295(17):2003- 2017, 2006.
  23. Mason BJ, Goodman AM, Chabac S, Lehert P. Effect of oral acamprosate on abstinence in patients with alcohol dependence in a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial: The role of patient motivation. J Psychiatr Res. 40(5):383-393, 2006.
  24. Rimondini R, Arlinde C, Sommer W, Heilig M. Longlasting increase in voluntary ethanol consumption and transcriptional regulation in the rat brain after intermittent exposure to alcohol. FASEB J. 16(1):27-35, 2002.
  25. Mason BJ, Ownby RL. Acamprosate for the treatment of alcohol dependence: A review of double-blind, placebo-controlled trials. CNS Spectrums. 5:58-69, 2000.
  26. Fuller RK, Gordis E. Does disulfiram have a role in alcoholism treatment today? Addiction. 99(1):21-24, 2004
  27. Allen JP, Litten RZ. Techniques to enhance compliance with disulfiram. Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 16(6):1035-1041, 1992.
  28. Screening and brief intervention for alcohol problems. In: The Tenth Special Report to the U.S. Congress on Alcohol and Health. Rockville, MD: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; 2000:429-443. NIH Publication No. 00-1583.
  29. Bush K, Kivlahan DR, McDonell MB, Fihn SD, Bradley KA, for the Ambulatory Care Quality Improvement Project (ACQUIP). The AUDIT alcohol consumption questions (AUDIT-C): An effective brief screening test for problem drinking. Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test. Arch Intern Med. 158(16):1789-1795, 1998.
  30. Whitlock EP, Polen MR, Green CA, Orleans T, Klein J. Behavioral counseling interventions in primary care to reduce risky/harmful alcohol use by adults: A summary of the evidence for the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force. Ann Intern Med. 140(7):557-568, 2004.
  31. Dawson DA, Grant BF, Stinson FS, Zhou Y. Effectiveness of the derived Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT-C) in screening for alcohol use disorders and risk drinking in the U.S. general population. Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 29(5):844-854, 2005.
  32. Dawson DA, Grant BF, Stinson FS, Chou PS. Psychopathology associated with drinking and alcohol use disorders in the college and general adult populations. Drug Alcohol Depend. 77(2):139-150, 2005.
  33. Mukamal KJ, Rimm EB. Alcohol’s effects on the risk for coronary heart disease. Alcohol Res Health. 25(4):255- 261, 2001.
  34. Alcohol consumption among women who are pregnant or who might become pregnant—US, 2002. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 53(50):1178-1181, 2004.
  35. The estimate of 2,000 to 8,000 infants born with fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) is derived by multiplying 4 million U.S. births annually by an estimated 0.5 to 2 percent prevalence of FAS in the general U.S. population. Sources: (1) National Center for Health Statistics. Births, marriages, divorces, and deaths: Provisional data for 2001. National Vital Statistics Reports; 2002:50(14); and May PA, Gossage JP. Estimating the prevalence of fetal alcohol syndrome: A summary. Alcohol Res Health. 25(3):159-167, 2001.
  36. Project MATCH Research Group. Matching alcoholism treatments to client heterogeneity: Project MATCH three-year drinking outcomes. Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 22(6):1300-1311, 1998.
  37. Mayo-Smith MF. Pharmacological management of alcohol withdrawal: A meta-analysis and evidence-based practice guideline. American Society of Addiction Medicine Working Group on Pharmacological Management of Alcohol Withdrawal. JAMA. 278(2):144-151, 1997.
  38. Mayo-Smith MF, Beecher LH, Fischer TL, et al. Management of alcohol withdrawal delirium: An evidence-based practice guideline. Arch Intern Med. 164(13):1405-1412, 2004.
  39. Hoeksema HL, de Bock GH. The value of laboratory tests for the screening and recognition of alcohol abuse in primary care patients. J Fam Pract. 37:268-276, 1993.
  40. U.S. Preventive Services Task Force. Guide to Clinical Preventive Services. 2nd ed. Baltimore, MD: Williams & Wilkins; 1996.
  41. Salaspuro M. Carbohydrate-deficient transferrin as compared to other markers of alcoholism: A systematic review. Alcohol. 19(3):261-271, 1999.
  42. Miller WR, Walters ST, Bennett ME. How effective is alcohol treatment in the United States? J Stud Alcohol. 62:211-220, 2001.
  43. McLellan AT, Lewis DC, O’Brien CP, Kleber HD. Drug dependence, a chronic medical illness: Implications for treatment, insurance, and outcomes evaluation. JAMA. 284(13):1689-1695, 2000.
  44. Dawson DA, Grant BF, Stinson FS, Chou PS, Huang B, Ruan WJ. Recovery from DSM-IV alcohol dependence: United States, 2001-2002. Addiction. 100(3):281-292, 2005.

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